Thermodynamics, Gravity and Economics - the A3 Crude Tables and Does a Potato Work page ]   [ return home ]

"There is no limit to what a man can do or where he can go if he doesn't mind who gets the credit." - Ronald Reagan,
40. President of the United States of America


From an economic point of view, the result of human activity is always zero,
as the assets and liabilities split up in the production process
will always cancel each other out; and physically,
the result is a loss.

So where then
is the profit?

The physical basis of ecology and economics is that all living beings, humans, machines, and matter movements on the planet's interactive surface, deplete, according to the laws of thermodynamics at a loss, an energy potential and entropic gradient which is provided for, and then replenished, free of charge and for thermodynamic gain, by the force of gravity.

These processes are sometimes intermixed.

From astrology to astronomy in economics

The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Within certain limits, it is not important that something is correct, but that it is useful.

It does not matter if something is completely understood theoretically (which in theory it can never be), but only that its effect is recognized. That is the only way a monkey can use a stick as a lever, and it is also the only way humans could employ fire without knowing anything about oxidation, and send an arrow into the target without having any idea of theoretical mechanics. To this day, flat, and thereby necessarily incorrect maps are used to navigate a globe, and no- one gets lost when if they are used correctly.

Similarly, humans have been orientating their lives along the course of the stars above for thousands of years; and their cleverest, on all continents, at all times, have endeavored to trace and predict their paths; but naturally, they succeed only within the framework of their theoretical possibilities.

As long as they proceeded from the assumption of a flat, static, asymmetrical world, and divided it into sectors from their point of view (in the Babylonian- Egyptian European region into divisions of 12, 60, and 360), the result was wrong, but employable; in particular, the calculation of the planetary orbits resulted in completely chaotic reproductions from the point of view of the earth as their theoretical center - although they were quite regular; so regular, in fact, that astronomical phenomena could be predicted, albeit with great difficulty (and so precisely, that unforeseen ones, such as comets and supernovae, were considered harbingers of doom; and quite rightly so, as only the likelihood of catastrophe was unknown).

But it took three theoretical revolutions to send satellite probes onto distant planets. From the subjective, flat (or rather: pyramidical) earth with a fixed "up" and "down" side (which in the universe does not exist, in stark contrast to right and left), first to a three-dimensional sphere (this, incidentally, was done thousands of years ago with admirable precision; but ecclesiastically, and thus morally and socially accepted only since a few hundred years, and finally so only since a few decades); then the idea of a universe with the earth in its center needed to become heliocentric (as a result of which, theoretically non-calculable, varyingly erratic planetary orbits, first, became circles, then, with increasing precision, fluctuating ellipses); then, from a heliocentric world view, to one of a universe with a past big bang in its center, thus changing it from space to time- and who knows how many changes are still to come.

It was possible to navigate within each of these world views; but not beyond. And every time a sacral edifice, oriented towards the postulated eternal course of the stars, and thus the society built according to these calculations, went out of focus because of the dynamics of the universe, the respective society dissolved; because its fundamental beliefs, its stability, and thus the justification of its structure were now in question.

And for precisely the same reason, because neither nature or universe revolve around man in any way; just as the human-centered, assumption-based, astrological world view had to become a centerless, observation-based, astronomical world view (in which not even time is constant any more), in order to progress; so the human-centered, assumption-based, economical (actually, ecological) picture of the world must become a centerless, observation-based new economic view of the world; in order to escape the eternal cycle of unforeseeable economic events.

As in astrology, the calculations and accounting (which, in addition to the macroeconomic governmental money systems, include the microeconomic, such as the presentation of taxes and levies, the pension payments and so on) in the current economy are inconsistent, confused, baseless, complicated, inscrutable; even experts do not comprehend it (not because they are stupid, but because it is based on false assumptions); and, above all, foreseealbe only to a very limited extent.

Here now is no less than the attempt, as at that time by Eratosthenes of Cyrene to emerge from a false view of the world.

Full Page of Thermodynamics

Wealth vs Work

Wealth Creation vs. Job Creation ]

Just for curiosity: The gravity 'time machine' experiment

Experiment 1 - 345 kb MPG

The gravity time machine experiment -
A detour through a gravity dip saves time

This simple experiment does not prove or disprove anything said on the thermodynamics page.

I have put it here to show that, while the laws of thermodynamics rule, there may be more to it than meets the eye.  

The Author of the site I took it from writes:

The track cyclists's trick

"Sometimes a cyclist can overtake another one only by letting himself be carried far up the steep curve, to then gain speed on the way down. This is so widely known by athletes that nobody thinks very much about it.

Dr. Werner Klein has nevertheless made the effort to examine this effect more closely in the periodical 'Physics in our Time' 1998/2. In my opinion, this is the first actual proof that there is more at work here than the law of conservation of energy, although, contrary to all other opinions, this is expressedly not violated by it."

And he asks:

"What, if not Energie, has caused the goal to be reached in shorter time?"

This simple machine, which converts potential energy into kinetic energy, does not break the rules of thermodynamics, but shows that taking a detour through even a slight gravitational dip will conspicuously save time - even though in sum, no extra energy is gained or consumed.

The detour saves time, not energy - space is crossed in shorter time by taking a longer route at a given energy consumption. The end speed is obviously the same. In simple mechanics, one should expect exactly the opposite - or should one?

A longer route in shorter time means higher average speed -
which is acheived here with the same energy potential.  

See for yourself by clicking on the picture or here: 345 kb MPG )


Home Lab Page This experiment was taken from the site, where it is explained and put into context with more descriptions, including an excel-spreadsheet (all in German).

On second thoughts:

Adding some thought experiment

"Thermodynamics deals with irreversible events - which, according to Newton, should not exist."

- so someone said.

So let us combine both in some thought experiment, and consider the field of mechanical energy storage and recovery - a process that is reversible in principle 1.

First to the dynamic realm:

The lake of a pumped storage power station is filled, with the help of a defined amount of energy E (+HL1, the inevitable heat loss) 2; when emptying, the same amount of energy E is recovered (-HL2, the again inevitable loss of heat).

So, the same amount of energy (minus the waste heat not to be converted) was employed, then recovered; the difference is zero; and with the water back in its former place, the original state is indeed restored. In the meantime, however, tons of water were moved. By what? Is not the amount of energy consumed zero? And was not the water moved upwards, against gravity, half of the time and distance?

Now to the static realm:

A pendulum is deflected and swings (almost) up to the same height on the other side (again, the loss is not recoverable). The potential energy of the pendulum is now the same as before; however, the mass of the pendulum is now in another place. How did it get there? Because again, half of the time (and distance) the pendulum was moved upwards, against gravity.

Both processes correspond to the oscillating of the balance wheel in a mechanical clock.

Of course, there are valid explanations 3; but the matter becomes really remarkable when one considers that both of these processes do not work in weightlessness; outside of a gravitational field there is no (mechanical) potential energy; so a pendulum stays put in any position.

On the other hand, if you accelerate a bucket of (of course frozen) water in a certain direction in weightlessness, not only will you be accelerated in the opposite direction; as with a bowling ball on a ping-pong table or boat on a lake, you will need additional energy to reverse and catch up with the bucket drifting off in the opposite direction - without, on balance, being able to benefit from its energy.

So, as it seems, this type of mechanical energy storage and recovery is only possible within range of a gravitational field 4.

[Other, secondary ones, of course are, such as electrical, chemical, compressed-air- or spring- loaded.]

But it goes on:

Even more important is the energy-producing and entropy-destroying effect of gravity:

A rock in the universe, with its absolute place and velocity indeterminate(*), has in itself, neither kinetic nor potential energy, only mass; if, however, a planet approaches it with its gravitational field, it may accelerate the chunk to a speed higher than its own; the formerly energy-free stone now possesses both forms of mechanical energy, and this even increasingly so, in relation to the other's center of gravity.

And when it hits, thermal energy is generated: several thousand degrees are created in place of a former temperature close to absolute zero. And all of this without the use of outside energy; all this energy, up to then, was simply not there before.

Could it be that here, right before our very eyes and yet unnoticed, a mystery has its solution, namely the unconditional emergence from nothing, the source of all being beyond a cloud of hydrogen, as well as the energy that energizes the existing, and ultimately allows life within it?

And is this newly formed energy, whose movement (and compulsory disorder and loss) generating laws are so well known, at the same time, albeit to varying degrees, inextricably intertwined with its origin, the likewise energetic and orderly acting, creative gravity?

Is this the end of the search for the fountain of youth, the source of all life? Even if eternal renewal can not proceed without eternal destruction, because nothing is lost in the universe, but always has to be recreated anew.

* 1) Newton's first law of motion, known as 'The Law of Inertia', states that objects at rest, and objects moving in a straight line, are equivalent; not moving at all and moving in a straight line are one and the same thing, and cannot be discerned; it is impossible to tell if an object is standing still or moving in a straight line; this depends on the frame of reference.

  2) Matter is passive and inert; it can only be influenced from the outside. Objects cannot move by themselves: "If nothing happens, nothing happens."

  -  So how can living beings move?


  1. The point is not to dispute the laws of mechanics and thermodynamics that have been proven and applied for centuries, but to look at their curiosities, presuppositions and connections. ^

  2. That portion of energy that is not used for the movement but heats the environment. ^

  3. Also for the track cyclist- problem: Taking a longer detour through a gravity sink leads to an earlier arrival at the same final speed (i. e. the same final energy). ^

  4. This applies, as will be shown here, at least indirectly to any energy storage and recovery, as well as energy generation^


©  JHR 01/2005

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